Semantic Domains 9: Grammar

9 Grammar

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9.1 General words

9.1.1 Be

9.1.1.1 Exist

    jisO [ji.sə] – Exist
9.1.1.2 Become, change state
9.1.1.3 Have, of
    kotO [kotə] – Carry, Keep

9.1.1.4 Attribution

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9.1.2 Do

9.1.2.1 Happen

9.1.2.2 React, respond

9.1.2.3 Create
    mAzO [mæ.zə] – Craft, create with skill and intent.
    mAzUm [mæ.zʊm] – Creativity (lit. create-ness)

9.1.2.4 Design

9.1.2.5 Make
    bIs [bɪs] – Make

9.1.2.6 Change something

9.1.2.7 Event propositions

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9.1.3 Thing
    som [som] – Thing
    somuk [ˈsom.uk] – Everything

9.1.3.1 Physical, non-physical

9.1.3.2 Situation

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9.1.4 General adjectives

9.1.5 General adverbs

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9.2 Part of speech

9.2.1 Adjectives

9.2.2 Adverbs

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9.2.3 Pronouns
    Iz [ɪz] – First person singular
    Iv [ɪv] – First person plural
    tab [tɑb] – Second person singular
    tav [tɑv] – Second person plural
    dUs [dʊs] – Third person singular
    dUf [dʊf] – Third person plural

9.2.3.1 Reflexive pronouns

9.2.3.2 Indefinite pronouns
    tus [tus] – This
    tat [tɑt] – That
    tuf [tuf] – These
    taf [tɑf] – Those
9.2.3.3 Relative pronouns
    amat [ɑmɑt] – Determiner (what, who)
    amaS [ɑmɑʃ] – Locator (where)
    amaZ [ɑmɑʒ] – Temporalizer (when)
    amaz [ɑmɑz] – Manner (how)
    amas [ɑmɑs] – Purpose, reason (why)
    amav [ɑmɑv] – Alternativizer (which)
9.2.3.4 Interrogative pronouns
    mat [mɑt] – Determiner (what, who)
    maS [mɑʃ] – Locator (where)
    maZ [mɑʒ] – Temporalizer (when)
    maz [mɑz] – Manner (how)
    mas [mɑs] – Purpose, reason (why)
    mav [mɑv] – Alternativizer (which)

9.2.3.5 Demonstrative pronouns

9.2.3.6 Personally

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9.2.4 Prepositions, postpositions
    iS [-iʃ] – Inside, within, during
    iSi [-iʃi] – Toward the inside of
    at [-ɑt] – At the surface of
    ata [-ɑtɑ] – Toward the surface of
    ors [-oɻs] – Through the interior of
    alz [-ɑlz] – Between
    ens [-ens] – Outside of
    Uv [-ʊv] – Above, over, across, upwards, up
    ap [-ɑp] – On, atop, upon
    apa [-ɑpɑ] – Toward the top of
    ol [-ol] – Below, under, down, downward
    olo [-olo] – Toward the underside of
    orf [-oɻf] – Before, in front of
    orfo [-oɻfo] – Toward the front of
    eft [-eft] – Behind, after
    efte [-efte] – Toward the rear of
    eG [-eɣ] – From
    eGe [-eɣe] – Directly from
    ot [-ot] – To, toward
    oto [-oto] – Directly toward
    If [-ɪf] – With (complimentative or instrumental)
    ob [-ob] – Of (genitive of possession or composition)
    em [-em] – Benefactive
    ON [-əŋ] – Malefactive
    awb [-ɑɰb] – About (all around), around, encompassing, surrounding
    as [-ɑs] – As – used to refer to the function or character that something or someone has
    iw [-iɰ] – Away
    ud [-ud] – Out
    ok [-ok] – For

9.2.5 Conjunctions

9.2.5.1 Phrase conjunctions
    aG [-ɑɣ] – And (phrasal)
    oS [-oʃ] – With the result that, so

9.2.5.2 Clause conjunctions

9.2.5.3 Sentence conjunctions
9.2.5.4 List conjunctions
    ag [-ɑg] – And

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9.2.6 Particles

9.2.6.1 Classifiers

9.2.7 Interjections
    skaj [skɑj] – Interjection of frustration
9.2.8 Idiophones
    kikiki [kikiki] – Sound of Sneaking About
    amnamanam [ɑmnɑmnɑm] – Sound of Voracious Eating

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9.2.9 Affixes

9.2.9.1 Verb affixes

9.2.9.2 Noun affixes

9.2.9.3 Derivational affixes
    nars [-nɑɻs] – Un. Negation of affixed word.

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9.3 Very

9.3.1 Degree

9.3.1.1 To a large degree
    vas [vɑs] – Very

9.3.1.2 To a small degree

    pis [pis] – A little
9.3.1.3 To a larger degree

9.3.1.4 To a smaller degree

9.3.2 Completely
    luk [luːk] – Completely

9.3.3 Partly

9.3.4 Do intensely

9.3.5 Attribution of an attribute

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9.4 Semantic constituents related to verbs

9.4.1 Tense and aspect

9.4.1.1 Tense

9.4.1.2 Aspect–dynamic verbs

9.4.1.3 Aspect–stative verbs

9.4.1.4 Relational tenses

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9.4.2 Agent-oriented modalities

9.4.2.1 Can
    gIm [gɪm] – Can, may
9.4.2.2 Can’t
    gInar [gɪnɑɻ] – Cannot, may not
9.4.2.3 Necessary
    him [him] – Must
    hinar [hi.nɑɻ] – Mustn’t
    dUm [dʊm] – Should
    dUnar [dʊnɑɻ] – Shouldn’t

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9.4.3 Moods

9.4.3.1 Imperative

9.4.3.2 Hortative
    fU [fʊh] – May (as in ‘May she live forever,’ not She may live forever.’) (Optative Mood)

9.4.3.3 Interrogative

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9.4.4 Epistemic moods

9.4.4.1 Certainly, definitely
    pir [piɻ] – Will
    pinar [pi.nɑɻ] – Won’t

9.4.4.2 Sure

9.4.4.3 Probably

9.4.4.4 Possible

9.4.4.5 Uncertain

9.4.4.6 Unsure

9.4.4.6.1 Think so

9.4.4.6.2 Maybe

9.4.4.6.3 Seem

9.4.4.7 Just, almost not

9.4.4.8 Don’t think so, doubt it

9.4.4.9 Impossible

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9.4.5 Evidentials

9.4.5.1 Evaluator

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9.4.6 Yes
    ax [ɑx] – Yes
9.4.6.1 No, not
    nar [nɑɻ] – No
9.4.6.2 Markers expecting an affirmative answer
    nO [nə] – sort of like “right?”

9.4.6.3 Markers expecting a negative answer

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9.4.7 Subordinating particles

9.4.8 Adverbial clauses

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9.5 Case

9.5.1 Primary cases

9.5.1.1 Beneficiary of an event

9.5.1.2 Instrument

9.5.1.3 Means

9.5.1.4 Way, manner
    lop [lop] – Way, manner

9.5.1.5 Attendant circumstances

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9.5.1.6 Spatial location of an event

9.5.1.6.1 Source (of movement)

9.5.1.6.2 Path (of movement)

9.5.1.6.3 Goal (of movement)

9.5.1.6.4 Origin (of a person)

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9.5.2 Semantically similar events

9.5.2.1 Together

9.5.2.2 With, be with
    sUv [sʊv] – With
9.5.2.3 With, do with someone
    sUv [sʊv] – With

9.5.2.4 Each other

9.5.2.5 In groups

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9.5.3 Patient-related cases

9.5.3.1 Beneficiary (of a patient)

9.5.3.2 Recipient (of a patient)

9.5.3.3 With (a patient)

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9.6 Connected with, related

9.6.1 Coordinate relations

9.6.1.1 And, also
    aG [ɑɣ] – And (joining clauses)
    ag [ɑg] – And (joining lists)
9.6.1.2 Or, either
    lo [lo] – Or

9.6.1.3 Association

9.6.1.4 Combinative relation

9.6.1.5 But
    vOh [vəʔ] – But

9.6.1.5.1 Except

    pOm [pəm] – Except

9.6.1.5.2 Instead

9.6.1.6 Dissociation

9.6.1.7 Distribution

9.6.1.8 Equivalence

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9.6.2 Dependency relations

9.6.2.1 Derivation

9.6.2.2 Limitation of topic

9.6.2.2.1 In general

9.6.2.3 Relations involving correspondences

9.6.2.4 Basis

9.6.2.5 Cause

    gaz [gæz] – Cause

    gas [gæ.zə] – Cause (v)

    gas [gɑs] – Because

9.6.2.5.1 Reason

    mor [moɻ] – Reason

9.6.2.5.2 Without cause

9.6.2.6 Result

9.6.2.6.1 Without result

9.6.2.7 Purpose

9.6.2.7.1 Without purpose

9.6.2.8 Condition
    reN [ɻeŋ] – If
    poS [poS] – Then

9.6.2.9 Concession

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9.6.3 Discourse markers

9.6.3.1 Markers of transition

9.6.3.2 Markers of emphasis

9.6.3.3 Prompters of attention

9.6.3.4 Markers of direct address

9.6.3.5 Markers of identificational and explanatory clauses

9.6.3.6 Markers of focus

9.6.3.7 Hesitation fillers

9.6.3.8 Honorifics

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9.7 Name

9.7.1 Name of a person

9.7.1.1 Personal names

9.7.1.2 Family names

9.7.1.3 Clan names

9.7.1.4 Tribal names

9.7.1.5 Names of languages

9.7.1.6 Nickname

9.7.1.7 Terms of endearment

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9.7.2 Name of a place

9.7.2.1 Names of countries

9.7.2.2 Names of regions

9.7.2.3 Names of cities

9.7.2.4 Names of streets

9.7.2.5 Names of heavenly bodies

9.7.2.6 Names of continents

9.7.2.7 Names of mountains

9.7.2.8 Names of oceans and lakes

9.7.2.9 Names of rivers

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9.7.3 Name of a thing

9.7.3.1 Names of animals

9.7.3.2 Names of buildings

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